Art. 9: Freedom of Thought, Conscience and Religion

Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief, in worship, teaching, practice and observance. 

A qualified right, subject to a few exceptions, that have the aims of public safety, public order, health or morals, or for the rights of others, which aims must be pursued proportionately. See ECHR EXCEPTIONS TABLE

Begum and Denbigh High School, Luton’s uniform (Article 8 Dignity also applies)
Denbigh High School had good Ofsted results and had consulted extensively on their uniform policy which was a shalwar kameze (a long tunic with baggy trousers) and also allowed a headscarf.

Begum’s parents had died and she lived with her older sister, who had attended the girls only school, and their brother. In Year 9 Begum was wearing a long, loose coat-like jilbab and her brother and his friend accompanied her to school. They all argued that the jilbab was more concealing of a young woman’s changing body than the shalwar kameze. They said that forbidding her to wear it would violate her human right to manifest her religion as well as her rights to dignity:

The school excluded Begum and the young people continued their battle through the courts, including also her Right to Education. However the House of Lords found no interference with Begum’s rights since there were good, easily accessible schools in the area that allowed the jilbab.
Denbigh Girls High
UK Human Rights Blog Article

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